Fiber, Cholesterol, and Other Health Benefits!

Fiber SourcesIf you read my post and Cholesterol Reduction”[/intlink] you know how important fiber can be in helping to lower the “BAD” LDL cholesterol to prevent the cardiovascular disease atherosclerosis.    Fiber is also important in reducing the risk for certain types of cancer, helping control blood sugar for diabetics, reducing the risk for stroke, improving elimination, and can be a useful tool in weight management.  

Because fiber is so important to your general health and wellness I’ve put together a list of good sources of fiber.  Please use this fiber list as a general guide in helping you to find some foods and food groups that appeal to you and your taste buds.  For simplicity, I’ve grouped these items according to grams per serving.  

Serving sizes can vary and so can calories per serving so you will need to read the nutritional label.  This list is not complete but it will help you when you go to the market.   

2 to 4 grams of fiber per serving:

Almonds:  ¼ cup is 2.4 grams

Applesauce:  ½ cup is 2.7 grams

Apricots:  2 halves dried are 1.7 grams

Avocado:  ½ average sized is 2.8 grams

Banana:  1 medium is 3.0 grams

Boston Brown Bread:  2 slices are 4.0 grams

Broccoli:  1 cup cooked or raw is 3 grams

Brussel Sprouts:  1 cup is 4.0 grams

Cabbage:  1 cup cooked is 4.0 grams

Carrots:  1 cup cooked is 4 grams

Cauliflower:  1 cup cooked is 2.5 grams

Celery:  ½ cup raw is 4.0 grams

Coconut:  1 tablespoon dried is 3.4 grams

Corn:  1 cup cooked is 4 grams

Cornbread:  1 square (2 ½”) is 3.4 grams

Cornflakes Cereal:  1 cup is 3.5 grams

Cracked Wheat Bread:  2 slices are 3.6 grams

Cranberries:  ½ cup in sauce form is 4.0 grams

English Muffin (Whole Wheat):  1 whole muffin is 3.7 grams

Okra:  1 cup fresh or cooked is 3.2 grams

Orange:  1 large is 2.4 grams

Parsnip:  1 large cooked is 2.8 grams

Peach:  1 medium is 2.3 grams

Pear:  1 medium is 4.0 grams

Puffed Wheat Cereal:  1 cup is 3.3 grams

Pumpernickel Bread:  2 slices are 4.0 grams

Rice (White):  ½ cup before cooking is 2.0 grams

Strawberries:  1 cup is 3.0 grams

Turnip:  ½ cup cooked is 2.0 grams

Watermelon:  1 thick slice is 2.8 grams

Wheaties Cereal:  1 cup is 2.0 grams

Zucchini:  ½ cup raw or cooked is 3.0 grams


4.1 to 6 grams of fiber per serving:

Apple:  1 large raw is 4.5 grams

Artichokes:  1 large is 4.5 grams

Beets:  1 cup cooked is 5.0 grams

Blackberries:  ½ cup is 4.4 grams

Bran Flakes Cereal:  1 cup is 5.0 grams

Bran Flakes with Raisins Cereal:  1 cup is 6.0 grams

Bran Meal:  3 tablespoons are 6 grams

Dark Rye Bread:  2 slices are 5.8 grams

Flatout Wraps:  1 wrap has 5 grams of fiber or more

Green Beans (Snap):  1 cup is 4.2 grams

Idaho Baked Potato:  1 medium with skin is 5.0 grams

Macaroni (Whole Wheat):  1 cup cooked is 5.7 grams

Mashed Potato:  1 cup is 6.0 grams

Noodles (Whole Wheat Egg):  1 cup cooked is 5.7 grams

Raspberries:  ½ cup is 4.6 grams

Rice (Brown):  ½ cup before cooking is 5.5 grams

Sauerkraut (Canned):  1 cup is 4.6 grams

Seven-Grain Bread:  2 slices are 6.5 grams

Shredded Wheat (Spoon Sized):  1 cup is 4.4 grams

Spaghetti (Whole Wheat):  1 cup cooked is 5.6 grams

Sweet Potato:  1 medium is 5.5 grams

Whole Wheat Bread:  2 slices are 6.0 grams

Whole Wheat Raisin Bread:  2 slices are 6.5 grams


6.1 to 10 grams of fiber per serving:

Bran Chex Cereal:  1 cup is 7.5 grams

Buckwheat Groats (Kasha):  1 cup cooked is 9.6 grams

Cracklin’ Bran Cereal:  1 cup is 8 grams

Fruit N’ Fiber Cereal:  1 cup is 7 grams

Greens (Collards, Beet Greens, Kale, Turnip Greens):  1 cup cooked is 8.0 grams

High-Bran “Health” Bread:  2 slices are 7.0 grams

Lentils:  1 cup cooked is 6.4 grams

Nabisco 100% Bran Cereal:  1 cup is 8.0 grams

Peas (Green):  1 cup is 7 grams

Rutabaga (Yellow Turnip):  1 cup is 6.4 grams

Yams:  1 medium is 6.8 grams


10.1 and above grams of fiber per serving:

All Bran Cereal:  ½ cup is 10.4 grams

Baked Beans:  1 cup is 16 grams

Black Beans:  1 cup cooked is 14 grams

Bran Buds Cereal:  ½ cup is 10.4 grams

Chickpeas (Garbanzos):  1 cup cooked is 12 grams

Figs:  3 dried are 10.5 grams

Great Northern Beans:  1 cup is 16 grams

Kidney Beans:  1 cup cooked is 19.4 grams

Lima Beans:  1 cup canned or cooked is 11.6 grams

Navy Beans:  1 cup cooked is 18 grams

Oatmeal Cereal:  1 cup is 10.3 grams

Pinto Beans:  1 cup cooked is 18.8 grams

Spinach:  1 cup cooked is 14 grams

Split Peas:  1 cup cooked is 13.4 grams

White Beans:  1 cup canned or cooked is 16 grams 

This guide will give you a good start in finding foods that will help you increase your fiber intake. However, due to its complexity, laboratory technicians have not yet been able to ascertain the exact fiber content of many foods.  Because of this, you may find discrepancies from one source to another.  Add to the fact that there are varying sizes of fruits and vegetable, as well as growing conditions, and you can begin to understand why there might be some variations in the number of grams of fiber listed for different food items.    

Together we can work to save a million lives! 

Dan Hammer 

The information contained in this blog is for general information purposes only and never as a substitute for professional medical advice or medical exam.  The information contain in this blogging website has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration and should not be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease without the supervision of a qualified medical doctor.

Fiber and Cholesterol Reduction!

Lady and AppleCholesterol reduction through the use of statin drugs has become a big and profitable business for the pharmaceutical industry.  As more and more people have opted for a pill to help control their cholesterol levels fewer people are using fiber as their first line of defense.  If you read my blog post“Cholesterol and Statin Drugs – Happily Married or Headed for Divorce?”[/intlink] you know that these types of drugs are not without risks.   

So why has the use of fiber declined?  For most people compliance is the issue!

This post will provide you with 3 effective steps that can help increase your fiber intake to help in cholesterol reduction!   

Background Information!

According to the American Heart Association, cholesterol levels[/intlink] are a major risk factor for the cardiovascular disease atherosclerosis which increases the risk for heart attacks and stroke.  The main contributing factor to this problem is LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol which is commonly called “BAD” cholesterol.  Over 100 million Americans have cholesterol levels that exceed the recommended level with 20 percent of these considered in the high category.  

Soluble fiber has been clinically shown to reduce LDL cholesterol.  The typical American diet has somewhere between 5-14 grams of dietary fiber per day.  In 2002, the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences Research Council issued Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for fiber.  For males between the ages of 19-50 it is 38 grams of fiber per day.  For women in the same age category it is 25 grams of fiber per day.  If your age is greater than 50, then the amount of fiber decreases to 30 grams for men and 21 grams for women.  At best the typical American is only getting 50% of the needed fiber in their diet.   

What is Dietary Fiber?

Dietary fiber is found only in plant foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole-grain breads and cereals, nuts, and legumes (dried beans, lentils and peas).  Although there are several forms of fiber, they are usually classified into two groups: 

  • Soluble fiber can dissolve in water to form a gel-like substance in the digestive tract.  This soluble fiber is beneficial in lowering the “BAD” cholesterol.  Clinical studies have shown that diets containing 10 to 25 grams of soluble fiber per day can lower LDL cholesterol by 18%.  Sources of good soluble fiber include oats, peas, beans, apples, and citrus fruits.  Typically one serving of any of these foods will provide about one to three grams of soluble fiber.
  • Insoluble fiber cannot dissolve in water so it passes through the digestive tract relatively unchanged.  This insoluble fiber helps to make your stools softer and bulkier and speeds elimination.  Sources of insoluble fiber would include whole-grain foods, wheat bran, most vegetables and fruit with skin.  

Typically, canned and frozen fruits and vegetables contain just as much fiber as raw ones.  However, some types of refining processes may reduce the fiber content.  Current food labeling requires the amount of dietary fiber to be listed.  It is listed just below the “Total Carbohydrate” portion of the Nutrition Facts section of the product label.  For a manufacturer to make fiber claims it must meet the following guidelines: 

  • High Fiber:  5 grams or more per serving
  • Good Source of Fiber:  2.5 – 4.9 grams per serving
  • More or Added Fiber:  At least 2.5 grams more per serving than the reference food  

How Fiber Decreases Cholesterol Naturally!

One of the ways the body eliminates cholesterol is through the excretion of bile acids.  Water-soluble fiber such as pectin and fiber found in rolled oats helps to bind these bile acids so that they are not reabsorbed in the intestines.  This forces the liver to make new bile salts.  To do so the liver increases its production of LDL receptors.  These receptors then pull LDL cholesterol out of the bloodstream.  The more bile salts the liver has to make the greater the amount of LDL cholesterol pulled from the blood.  By increasing your fiber intake you increase the amount of fiber available to bind these bile acids to speed this natural cholesterol reduction method.  

Soluble fiber also seems to have a secondary method for cholesterol reduction.  Although this method is not completely understood it seems that the fermentation of soluble fiber in the large intestines produces several short-chain fatty acids.  One of these fatty acids will travel to your liver to tell it to produce less cholesterol.  

3 Simple Steps to Increasing Your Fiber Intake!

When most people hear the concept of increasing their fiber intake they immediately think about eating multigrain breads and a lot of lettuce.  This is not what their culinary taste buds are going to get excited about.  Plus, it’s not the most effective way to increase your fiber intake.  

The following 3 steps are realistic so that everyone can achieve the goal of increased fiber intake and be able to do it long term.  These steps will help improve your overall health and have the potential to be an effective strategy for cholesterol reduction. 

Step 1- Examine Your Diet.  You like bread, cereal, pasta, rice, and maybe a vegetable.  By making some simple changes you could drastically increase your fiber intake while still enjoying your same meals. 

  • Bread:  1 slice of white bread has .6 grams of fiber where as 1 slice of whole-wheat bread has 1.9 grams of fiber.  Figuring two slices of bread for your sandwich, you just increased your fiber intake from 1.2 grams to 3.8 grams.  For a creative change to the normal sandwich try Flatout Wraps.  Their Harvest Wheat has 5 grams of fiber per wrap and some of their wraps can go as high as 9 grams of fiber.  Go to for recipes and store locations.
  • Cereal:  Maybe you’re a Wheaties type of person which has 2 grams of fiber per 1 cup serving.  By switching to 100% All Bran you just increased you fiber intake to 17.6 grams of fiber.  Too much fiber and not enough taste than try Raisin Bran at 5 grams per 1 cup serving. 
  • Pasta:  1 cup of uncooked pasta typically has 2 grams of fiber.  Switching to 1 cup of Barilla PLUS pasta and your fiber intake increased to 7 grams of fiber.  Add a ½ cup of tomato sauce on top and you added another 3 grams of fiber.  What would have been a “5 grams of fiber” meal has now become “10 grams of fiber” with no loss in taste.  For more information about recipes and store locations go to .
  • Rice:  1 cup of cooked white rice is 2 grams of fiber.  Switching to 1 cup of cooked brown rice and you’re at 5.5 grams of fiber. 
  • Vegetable:  Some people think they need to add broccoli or cauliflower to their meal to increase their fiber and it turns them off.  Broccoli has 3.0 grams of fiber per cup, cauliflower only has 2.5 grams of fiber per cup.  Switching to 1 cup of corn gives you 4.0 grams of fiber, 1 cup of green beans is 4.2 grams of fiber, and 1 cup of peas is 7.0 grams of fiber.  Instead of having a salad which has 1 cup of iceberg lettuce at .7 grams of fiber you could skip the salad and add a vegetable that gives you 8 times the value in fiber. 

Step 2- Add Fiber.  There are a couple of simple ways to add fiber to your daily intake of food without adding loads of calories.  This helps control your weight which can also be a factor in cholesterol reduction. 

  • Breakfast:  A medium banana added to the top of your cereal is 3 grams of fiber.  A cup of strawberries, blueberries, or raspberries would range from 3.3 to 4.5 grams of fiber.   
  • Snack:  Instead of going to the vending machine for a candy bar or bag of chips why not eat a medium pear at 88 calories and 5 grams of fiber or a large apple at 90 calories and 4.5 grams of fiber.   
  • Meal:  Maybe it’s time to try some new additions to your meal like 1 cup of lentils or black beans at 15 grams of fiber, baked beans at 10.4 grams of fiber, 1 medium baked potato with the skin at 5.0 grams of fiber, or a sweet potato without the skin at 5.5 grams of fiber. 

By incorporating some of the changes and additions we’ve looked at you could see the following improvements in your overall fiber intake: 

  • A breakfast of cereal and toast could go from 1 to 3 grams of fiber to 9 to 21 grams of fiber. 
  • A mid-morning snack could go from 1 gram of fiber to 4 to 5 grams of fiber. 
  • A sandwich at lunch could go from 1 to 3 grams of fiber to 4 to 15 grams of fiber. 
  • A mid-afternoon snack could go from 1 gram of fiber to 4 to 5 grams of fiber. 
  • A dinner meal could go from 5 to 7 grams of fiber to 9 to 15 grams of fiber.  

Just by making some simple changes in your food selection you could go from 9-15 grams of fiber to 30-61 grams of fiber.  Just think of the impact this would have on your overall health while you are reducing your LDL cholesterol.   

Step 3 – Take a Supplement.  There is some controversy in the use of fiber supplements so I add this step with caution.  If you are not willing to make the simple changes I have outlined in Steps 1 & 2, then talk with a qualified physician who can give you some guidance in this area.  Typically, one tablespoon of an over-the-counter fiber supplement has 15 grams of fiber.  Most people take their supplement at night after their evening meal.  

Supplements are not meant to be used as a laxative which is where most of the controversy occurs.  They are only meant to be used as a supplement for those who are not getting the proper amount of fiber from their diet.

Two Important Notes!

Proper water intake is fundamental to this whole process of fiber intake.  On the one hand, fiber can be extremely useful in preventing constipation.  But, fiber taken in the absence of adequate water intake can also be binding to cause severe constipation.  Proper water intake is the number one key to improving your overall health and wellness.

Due to its complexity, laboratory technicians have not yet been able to ascertain the exact fiber content of many foods.  Because of this, you may find discrepancies from one fiber source to another.  Add to the fact that there are varying sizes of fruits and vegetable, as well as growing conditions, and you can begin to understand why there might be some variations in the number of grams of fiber listed for different food items. 

If you are not use to eating high fiber foods then make your changes gradually to allow your body to adjust.  Anyone with a chronic disease should always consult their physician first before they alter their diet. 

As you can see, increasing your fiber intake can have a positive effect on cholesterol reduction.  With guidance, and using some simple steps to incorporate more fiber into your diet, you can get Randy from American Idol to say, “It’s the Bomb, Baby!” 

Together we can work to save a million lives!

Dan Hammer

The information contained in this blog is for general information purposes only and never as a substitute for professional medical advice or medical exam.  The information contain in this blogging website has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration and should not be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease without the supervision of a qualified medical doctor.

Cholesterol and Statin Drugs

Blood SampleHappily Married or Headed for Divorce?

Over the last decade cholesterol has become the enemy of the cardiovascular system.  To combat this enemy more and more doctors are prescribing statin drugs like Lipitor (atorvastatin), Zocor (simvastatin), Mevacor (lovastatin) and Pravachol (pravastatin) as the answer to good cardiovascular health. 

But is cholesterol the real enemy?  And, if it is do the side effects of statin drugs outweigh the benefits?  Or, could there be a better way to protect the endothelial cells of your cardiovascular system from oxidative stress?

Cholesterol – Friend or Foe!

I used an exclamation mark instead of a question mark because it can be both.  Cholesterol is absolutely necessary for the proper function of your body.  Every cell membrane in your body needs cholesterol to help it function properly.  One of the many roles of your cell membrane is to keep the distinct biochemistry of the inside of your cell separate from that outside your cell.  When your cholesterol levels are not adequate, the cell membrane becomes porous.  This triggers an emergency response were the body releases corticoid hormones.  These hormones will pull cholesterol from one part of the body to the site in need to help repair the cell membrane.

Your brain could not function properly without cholesterol since half the dry weight of the cerebral cortex is made up of cholesterol.  Additionally, it is vital to the neurological functions of the brain such as memory and the ability of the brain to properly use hormones like serotonin.  Serotonin is your body’s “feel-good chemical” and when cholesterol levels are too low then the serotonin receptors cannot work properly. 

Cholesterol also plays a significant role in the following areas:

  • It is the precursor to vitamin D which is absolutely necessary for many of your body’s biochemical processes including mineral absorption.
  • It is necessary for the formation of bile salts which are required for the proper digestion of fats.
  • It is a powerful antioxidant to help protect you against cancer and aging.
  • It is the precursor to all the hormones produced in the adrenal cortex.  This alone has huge implications to your overall wellness since a disruption in the production of adrenal hormones can lead to:
    • Blood sugar problems
    • Edema
    • Mineral deficiencies
    • Chronic inflammation
    • Difficulty in healing
    • Allergies
    • Asthma
    • Reduced libido
    • Infertility and other reproductive problems.

As you can see cholesterol is absolutely necessary for your total wellness.

So, what’s the danger from cholesterol? 

Cholesterol is a natural product of the liver but sometimes the liver produces too much cholesterol.  When this happens it can affect the endothelial cells of your cardiovascular system.  It can damage the intercellular junctions between the endothelial cells allowing deposits to build up.  This causes the smooth and flexible lining of your blood vessels to become rough and hard leading to the disease commonly called arteriosclerosis or atherosclerosis.  As this process continues over time, the deposits or plaques become larger which narrows the interior of the blood vessel making it harder for blood to pass through.  This increases resistance to blood flow which can cause your blood pressure to increase.   

The narrowing of your blood vessels also causes blood turbulence that can lead to the formation of blood clots.  These blood clots, if large enough or if they pass through too narrow of an opening, can eventually lodge themselves in a blood vessel causing a blockage.  When this happens in the heart we call it a heart attack.  When it happens in the brain it is called a stroke.

The Effects of Statin Drugs!

When your doctor takes a blood sample to check your cholesterol levels he or she is looking at three entities:  total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol.  It is the LDL or low-density lipoprotein that is considered the “BAD” cholesterol because it can damage the endothelial cells resulting in plaque buildup.  The HDL or high-density lipoprotein is considered the “GOOD” cholesterol because it seems to have a positive effect in protecting the endothelial cells from LDL damage.

Statin drugs lower cholesterol by blocking a key enzyme that the liver uses for its production.  The enzyme is HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methyglutaryl COA) reductase.  This inhibits the liver’s ability to produce LDL or low-density lipoprotein.  This frees up the number of LDL receptor sites on the surface of liver cells allowing the liver to remove more cholesterol from the bloodstream.  Thus, statin drugs work to inhibit the production of LDL and indirectly assist the liver cells in removing cholesterol from the blood.

Studies have shown statin drugs to have the following benefits: 

  • Lower LDL levels from 18 to 55%.
  • Raise HDL levels 5 to 15%.  (According to the Mayo Clinic for every 1 milligram per deciliter rise in HDL cholesterol you reduce your risk for heart attack by 3 percent.)
  • Help the body reabsorb cholesterol that has accumulated on the artery walls.
  • Reduce oxidative stress.
  • Reduce inflammation.
  • Stabilize plaque formations.
  • Help with endothelial function.

This looks pretty encouraging.  By using a drug that can lower the “BAD” cholesterol 18 to 55% while increasing the “GOOD” cholesterol 5 to 15% you can reduce the risk for heart attack, reduce oxidative stress, reduce inflammation, and aid endothelial function.  Who wouldn’t want this?

Well, let’s look at the side effects of statin drugs. 

Remember the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase that is inhibited by the statin drugs.  This enzyme is also critical in the formation of two other life enhancing compounds:  ubiquinone and dilochol.  Ubiquinone is better known as Co-Enzyme Q 10 or CoQ10.  It plays a critical role in helping the mitochondria of your cells produce ATP which is necessary for energy production.  Your heart requires high levels of CoQ10 to function properly.  Plus, it’s involved in respiration, helps to maintain membrane integrity critical to nerve conduction, and vital to elastin and collagen formation.  The side effects of CoQ10 deficiency include muscle wasting which leads to muscle weakness and severe back pain, heart failure, neuropathy, and tendon and ligament inflammation.

Dolichols play a huge role in helping to make sure that the proteins manufactured by the cell’s DNA end up at their proper targets.  This helps to ensure that the cells respond correctly to their genetic programming.  When interfered with they can allow for some very unpredictable consequences at the cellular level. 

Even though the FDA has deemed statin drugs to be safe, there is no drug that is totally without side effects.  For statin drugs, especially now that people have been taking them longer than required in clinical testing, the side effects are more evident.  They typically fall into two categories. 

  1. Muscle Pain associated with Rhabdomyolysis.  Muscle pain in the shoulders, jaw, legs and back are common.  This pain is a symptom of the breakdown of muscle tissue caused by statin drugs.  When muscle breaks down, the body must eliminate the excess waste.  This can overload the kidneys leading to a more serious problem.  Rhabdomyolysis is the medical term for this muscular breakdown and the subsequent release of the contents of muscle fiber into the bloodstream.  When this occurs the person’s urine is usually dark, red, or cola colored.  If severe enough it can lead to acute kidney failure and death.
  2. Muscle Weakness associated with Neuropathy.  Neuropathy is a malfunction of the peripheral nervous system which can affect muscle tone and function.  There are many types of neuropathy with one caused by statin drugs.  Muscle weakness is frequently a symptom of this form of neuropathy.  Other symptoms could include:  numbness, tingling, burning sensations, and extreme sensitivity to touch.  If left untreated, neuropathy can lead to muscle deterioration and possibly paralysis.  This can directly effect swallowing and breathing. 

Additionally, memory loss and cognitive function can also be a side effect of statin drugs.  This would make sense since cholesterol is critical to proper brain function.

Finally, congestive heart failure has more than doubled from 1989 to 1997 (with statin drugs introduced into the market place in 1987.)  During this time the incidence of heart attack has slightly declined.  The current reasoning for this is the interference in the production of CoQ10 which is critical to proper heart function.

The drug industry downplays these negative side effects.  While it is difficult to get an exact estimate of the true problem since there are competing interests, researchers estimate that 1 – 5% of statin users will experience muscle pain and 10% will experience muscle weakness.  It is estimated that 16 million Americans take Lipitor, the most popular of the statin drugs.  If the above estimates are correct, then 160,000 to 800,000 thousand American are experiencing some level of muscle pain and 1.6 million are experiencing muscle weakness. 

Is There a Better Way!

Yes, there is but this blog post has already become to long.  I’ll address this issue in my blog entitled “Nitric Oxide and Cholesterol!”  But let me say this before I conclude.  Like diabetes there are two issues that need to be addressed.  One is the over production of cholesterol and the other is the damage it does to the endothelial cells.  We’ll examine this in my next post.

If you would like additional information on the effects of statin drugs then I would highly recommend the following two sources:

Dangers of Statin Drugs:  What You Haven’t Been Told About Popular Cholesterol-Lowering Medicines by Sally Fallon and Mary G. Enig, PhD

Statin Answers – a website designed to educate and answers your questions about statin drugs.

Together we can work to save a million lives!

Dan Hammer

The information contained in this blog is for general information purposes only and never as a substitute for professional medical advice or medical exam.  The information contain in this blogging website has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration and should not be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease without the supervision of a qualified medical doctor.